References

1.      Hammond, D., Reid, J. L., Rynard, V. L., Fong, G. T., Cummings, K. M., McNeill, A., … & O’Connor, R. (2019). Prevalence of vaping and smoking among adolescents in Canada, England, and the United States: Repeat national cross sectional surveys. BMJ, 365, l2219.

2.      Government of Canada. (2015). Dangers of second-hand smoke. Retrieved from https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/smoking-tobacco/avoid-second-hand-smoke/second-hand-smoke/dangers-second-hand-smoke.html

3.      International Agency for Research on Cancer. (2012). Personal habits and indoor combustions: A review of human carcinogens, Volume 100E 2012. Retrieved from https://publications.iarc.fr/122

4.      The National Academies of Science and Engineering. (2018). Public health consequences of e-cigarettes. Retrieved from http://nationalacademies.org/hmd/Reports/2018/public-health-consequences-of-e-cigarettes.aspx

5.      Government of Canada. (2019). Consider the consequences of vaping. Retrieved from http://www.canada.ca/en/services/health/campaigns/vaping.html

6.      Czoli, C. D., Fong, G. T., Goniewicz, M. L., & Hammond, D. (2018). Biomarkers of exposure among “dual users” of tobacco cigarettes and electronic cigarettes in Canada. Nicotine & Tobacco Research.

7.      Hess, C. A., Olmedo, P., Navas-Acien, A., Goessler, W., Cohen, J. E., & Rule, A. M. (2017). E-cigarettes as a source of toxic and potentially carcinogenic metals. Environmental Research152, 221-225. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2016.09.026

8.       Hammond, D., Reid, J. L., Cole, A. G., & Leatherdale, S. T. (2017). Electronic cigarette use and smoking initiation among youth: a longitudinal cohort study. CMAJ189(43), E1328-E1336. https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.161002

9.      US Department of Health and Human Services. (2012). Preventing tobacco use among youth and young adults: A report of the Surgeon General.

10.  England, L.J., Bunnell, R.E., Pechacek, T.F., Tong, V.T. and McAfee, T.A. (2015). Nicotine and the developing human: A neglected element in the electronic cigarette debate. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 49(2), pp.286-293.

11.  US Department of Health and Human Services. (2016). E-cigarette use among youth and young adults: A report of the Surgeon General.